Newton is said to have seen a apple fall and realised that it must have a force acting on it. Then he concluded that this 'force of gravity' must be everywhere. Gravity must be the thing that keeps the earth orbiting the sun.

Newton discovered the law of gravity which tells us how to calculate the force. He did not suggest how nature manages to make gravity work. Technological advances in the 20th Century made it possible to measure the lesser known effects of gravity. It causes rulers to contract and clocks to run slow. These effects are almost imperceptible in the weak gravitational fields of our region of the galaxy, but are never the less detectable in the orbit of the planet Mercury, the bending light, slowing of radio signals and the variation in speed of atomic clocks with height above sea level.

There have been many theories trying to link gravity with electricity and magnetism. Most of them fail because atoms are made up of electrons, protons and neutrons. The neutrons have no electric charge, but they have weight. So hydrogen with no neutrons should be better at producing gravity than iron which has the highest proportion of neutrons. But it is not so.

Long after serious scientists gave up trying to link gravity and electric charge, the idea that protons and neutrons each consist of three quarks which have electric charges gives us new hope.

Einstein attempted to produce a theory of gravity with his General Relativity, but it does not tell how the force of gravity is generated. Einstein's theory is one of no force. We feel the weight on our feet because we are not travelling in straight lines through space-time. Unfortunately, Einstein's theory predicts effect of gravity on rulers and clocks. These effects have been observed and most scientists take this as proof of Einstein's theory.

My theory of gravity also predicts that rulers contract, clocks slow and light is bent. I believe that the electric fields of all electrons and quarks coexist in space and have a very, very, very small effect which they exert on each other reducing the amount of energy they have stored in them. This very, very, very small effect gives us the force of gravity.

General Relativity and my theory produce almost the same equations. They differ in the properties of black holes. My theory only has very dark brown holes. At the centre of a black hole everything collapses to nothing producing a singularity. Dr Who fans will be familiar with the word. My dark brown holes do not contain a singularity but otherwise look much the same.

My theory explains the physical process by which nature generates the force of gravity. Einsteins theory claims that space-time is curved by the presence of matter and attributes everything to the curvature.

In my theory, space remains unaltered. Our concept of time remains unaltered. The loss of energy from matter affects the properties of electric and magnetic fields called permittivity and permeability. These properties determine the spacing and inertial mass of atoms in matter. This gives us a physical explanation of why rulers contract and clocks run slow.