The Unified Laws of Physics
This is an early attempt to write a logically consistent set of the Unified Laws of Physics. When reading them, the reader should be looking at the "spirit of the law" and not at the "letter of the law". They are incomplete, and I guess that is a property of any logically consistent scientific thought process, which is of its very nature, open ended!
I reserve the right to change them without notice.
You will notice that many of them are expressed in words and not as equations. Even when an equation is given, its use is usually qualified. This reflects my understanding of the link between nature and mathematics.
If some of the laws seem more like philosophy than physics and you think this is inappropriate, then I suggest you visit a university library and look up Relativity in the catalogue. You will probably find that there are more books on the subject in the philosophy section than in either the mathematics or physics sections. Physics has to be grounded in philosophy and metaphysics to be sound just as philosophy and metaphysics need to be grounded in physics! It is the only way to know when to apply the brakes as logical deduction based on accumulated error takes science beyond science fiction.
These laws should be metaphysically neutral. If you believe the universe to be deterministic, then provided that you understand the implications of Chaos theory, these laws are compatible with your view. If you are Buddhist and want to believe that the universe is an illusion, then you may understand these laws as providing a framework in which information is stored and manipulated, they allow that interpretation. If like me you believe in a creator, these laws allow for that.
Indeed, the thought process behind the formulation of these laws has been to try to imagine God experimenting with different ways of building matter. We know the required end result and the laws that nature must obey, but we free ourself of all restrictions, have wild ideas and look at their implications.
There is one, just one philosophy these laws are not compatible with: existentialism. According to these laws of physics, Schrodinger's cat is either still alive, or else there was an exact moment in time when it died. It does not require a scientist observer to open the lid and look in the box. While alive, the cat observes its own existence. Dead or alive, the cat is observed by every atom of air in the box as its breathing and other movements cause air currents. It is observed by the atoms of the inside of the box as it exchanges infrared radiation with them. Its life is observed by the bacteria of its gut which will within a short time of its death start the process of decomposition.
Space and time
- Space has physical properties. It is an entity. It has existence.
- In the absence of a universe, space still exists and can be mapped with an origin and three noncoplanar vectors.
- Space is infinite.
- Space has sub-dimensions. That is to say that at every point in three dimensional space; space is able to have physical attributes which need describing in one or more dimensions.
- Time does not exist as an extended continuum. Only "now" and the infinitesimal element of time "dt" have real existence. When we choose an incident in the past and count time from then, we are creating a mathematical artefact. The future has yet to exist and the past has ceased to exist except as a matter of record. Only "now" exists.
- Any moving object or oscillating field provides a means of measuring time by the mathematical process of mapping position onto the number line which is the mathematical artefact we call time. Thus it is possible to build clocks.
- The nature of the building blocks of matter is affected by motion and by gravity causing both natural and man made clocks to run slow.
- Time is not a fourth dimension.
- The fact that clocks run slow does not mean that the nature of time changes.
- There are two types of time
- absolute time - which is the mathematical artefact
- measured time - which is recorded by a clock
- It is impossible to observe the present, only the past.
- Any observation over an extended region of space is an observation of events which occurred at different instants of time in the past. This can be ignored when the time taken to make the observation is large compared to the time light takes to traverse the region being observed.
- Space is the framework which has to pre-exist before anything can be created in it.
- Action at a distance is impossible.
- Space has two, three-dimensional layers, one of electric positiveness and one of electric negativeness. These are capable of being stretched apart to form an electric polarisation field. Space resists this stretching apart of its two layers with a stiffness of where is a fundamental constant of nature.
- Once formed from space, an electric polarisation field has an existence of its own and can move in space. Other polarisation fields can be formed from space and these will have separate existences.
- The act of stretching the positiveness and negativeness of space apart has to be braced against the fabric of space and space is very minutely distorted as a result of this.
- This distortion of space might be thought of as a kind of inter-structural torque which is not expressible in the three dimensions of space, but requires a forth dimension perpendicular to the other three. This forth dimension is not an extended dimension.
- Magnetism is a property of space. A magnetic field has real existence and real properties.
- Space might have other as yet undiscovered properties
- The universe consists of nothing but energy dancing around in the fabric of space.
- Energy can exist in energy density fields.
- Energy can also exist in the geometry of the position of energy density fields. This type of energy is called geometrical potential energy.
- There is an absolute law of conservation of energy.
- Nothing natural exists that is not a manifestation of energy density fields.
- There is no such thing as mass.
- Energy density fields can generate inertial properties associated with the transfer of energy from one field to another.
- Energy density fields experience and generate gravitational effects.
- All forms of energy, except geometrical potential energy, are always positive. Geometrical potential energy should always be positive, but it is partly of the nature of a mathematical artefact and therefore has an arbitrary zero point.
- The term potential energy is loosely applied to stored energy, but energy can be stored in energy density fields, or stored as geometrical potential energy. ( It requires a very good understanding of nature to make a correct classification.)
- All the fundamental processes of nature are the interaction of energy with energy and fundamental laws can only be formulated through concepts of energy and energy density fields.
Three ingredients are needed to create an energy density field from energy.
- A medium which can be distorted and has a stiffness with which it resists distortion
- A force like property which does the distorting
- A distance like property through which the force like property can act doing work.
- The energy density is proportional to the square of the force like property and the force like property is proportional to the square root of the energy density. If the energy density is Q, the force like property F and the stiffness st, then
- Energy cannot be stored in a single component of a system alone. There must always be at least one other component against which the force like property can be braced. This results in (usually small amounts of) energy also being stored in the other components of the system.
- In a two component system, the energy is stored in the two components in the inverse ratio of their stiffness.
- Nature cannot do mathematics.
- Every natural process has to have a mechanism to accomplish and to regulate it.
- A natural process cannot rely on action at a distance. To achieve the appearance of action at a distance, there must be a mechanism providing a point to point transmission from one place to another modifying the nature of space. The geometry of this process gives mathematical properties to the mechanism.
- Nature can perform vector addition of force like properties at a point.
- To create an electric charge, we pull the electric positiveness and the electric negativeness of space apart in a spherically symmetric fashion towards a point. We have to do work in creating the charge which depends both on the amount of charge and upon its physical size. The closer we drag the polarisation to the centre, the greater the energy. An infinite amount of energy would be required to to create a point charge.
- Matter is composed of charges in motion about one another.
- The surface of the charge is a raw edge of the stretched apart positiveness and negativeness of space.
- The charge is both its polarisation field and the inner exposed edge of the polarisation manifesting itself as charge on the inner face of a surface finite in size and spherical in shape.
- The polarisation field of a charge extends to infinity.
- Because action at a distance is impossible, the generation of the polarisation field is a continuous process reaching out from the surface of the charge through all space to infinity. The geometry of this continuous process imposes an obvious inverse square law upon the situation.
- When a charge is created, the force pulling the positiveness and negativeness of space apart must be braced against the dimensional structure of space creating the distortion which we experience as gravity.
- Each electric polarisation field is distinct and they all coexist throughout all space.
- There are three important physical properties associated with charges and electric polarisation energy density fields.
- The energy density and its vector .
- The electric field .
- The charge q.
- When electric polarisation energy density fields are in relative motion, magnetic fields are generated by their interaction.
- The effect produced is proportional to the square of the velocity and the simplest equations are formed if we define a quantity equal to which I call "vocacity" and represent by the Greek letter (upsilon).
- In the region of a massive body such as a planet, the presence of the very large number of electric polarisation energy density fields of the body's constituent charges creates a background property of local stationary-ness against which the movement of individual electric polarisation energy density fields move. (A massive body is one big enough to have its own gravitational field.) I call this property of local stationary-ness "stasis".
- The electric polarisation energy density field of a single moving charge will in the absence of other complications generate a magnetic energy density field given by the field interaction equation.
- Once generated, magnetic energy exists in its own right. It is best thought of as a flux, a concept which allows us to appreciate that in addition to a vector property , it has bulk.
- When more than one charge is involved and we are in the presence of a massive body, it is simpler to express things in terms of the electric induction , the magnetic intensity and the magnetic induction . The electric polarisation energy density field of each charge generates its own magnetic intensity given by.
This should be regarded as a mathematical artefact in that magnetic intensity is not the primary reality, but simply a way of describing the reality which is a moving electric polarisation energy density field. The individual sum at every point in space to give the magnetic intensity.
This again should be thought of as a mathematical artefact. The summation is done over every electric polarisation energy density field in the universe! This means that has a unique value at each point in space at any one time. A magnetic energy density field tries to form according to:
However the formation of the magnetic energy density field is subject to a number of limitations.
| ||: || |
- is continuous and must form closed loops.
- The magnetic energy density field as a whole entity moves through space.
- The locus of the magnetic energy density field is the locus of its geometry.
- The energy in a magnetic energy density field cannot be generated in space, it has to be generated from other forms of energy at the surfaces of the moving electric charges which are generating it.
- Magnetic energy density flux can only move from and back to its generating charges along lines parallel to their electric fields.
- No change can take place in at a point that would require magnetic flux to move faster than the speed of light.
- The loops of magnetic flux are always trying to contract in length.
- The magnetic energy density at a point in a magnetic field is the sum of contributions from all the charges responsible for generating that magnetic field.
- The individual contributions to the magnetic energy density add vectorially. Hence charges whose motion adds to the magnetic field at that point make a positive contribution to the energy density while those whose motion reduces the the magnetic field at that point make a negative contribution to the energy density.
- Changes in the energy density of a magnetic field result in energy density flux moving into and/or out of all charges. (Yes, all charges, in theory every charge in the universe, though the amount is subject to an inverse square law.)
- The movement of magnetic energy density flux through the surface of a charge generates a force.
- The electric energy density field generated by the movement of a magnetic energy density field is not felt by charges. This is because the movement of the magnetic field generates an electric field which acts on space to polarise it to form the electric polarisation field. A charge experiences two equal and opposite forces, one from the moving magnetic field and one from the polarisation field.
- The effect which we call magnetic induction is produced by the movement of magnetic energy density flux into and/or out of the surfaces of charges as their contribution to the energy in the magnetic field changes. The average effect on the conduction band electrons in a wire sums over the length of the wire to produce an emf.
- When we look at a moving charge from the perspective of atomic dimensions, we find that the intensity of its electric polarisation field now dominates and a stable magnetic energy density field is formed obeying the equation.
I have just produced a new paper on magnetism and this section will
need some extension.
Motion of Pure Charges
At this stage, the laws have not yet been formulated for real electrons and quarks which may have their own intrinsic magnetic fields. I consider the claimed magnetic moment of the electron to be ridiculously large and regard this whole area as in need of re-investigating. My assumption is that the behaviour of charged particles is dominated by their nature as charges. By studying their behaviour as charges, we learn about the way in which energy density fields interact to produce inertial effects. We then make the assumption that the same sort of effects are produced by the movement of magnetic energy density fields. Because the geometry of the magnetic fields of real charges is complex, exact analysis may take tens or hundreds of man years, but we expect the results to conform to laws formulated from energy considerations.
It follows that while the laws in this section apply to the pure charge model and remain unproved for real electrons and quarks, they point the way ahead.
Since first formulating these laws, I find myself thinking that it is more and more probable that electrons and quarks do not have significant magnetic moments. Indeed, the process has continued over the months since I wrote the last sentence and I have included a page on the problems associated with the idea of intrinsic spin.
- The magnetic energy density field forming around a pure charge (called its field of motion) has a total energy content which, in the case of a pure charge, corresponds to its kinetic energy.
- The movement of magnetic energy through the surface of a pure charge as it accelerates or decelerates generates an electric energy density field.
Where the vocasity is equal to the square of velocity of the magnetic energy through the surface as a multiple of the speed of light:
- This electric field exerts a force on the charge equal to the inertial force with which the charge resists the change in its velocity.
- Acceleration parallel to the velocity causes the field of motion to grow when it is speeding up the pure charge or to contract when it is slowing the charge.
- Acceleration perpendicular to a pure charge's velocity produces a rotation of its field of motion without any net changes in energy. However the rotation is achieved by equal amounts of magnetic energy moving into and out of the charge on opposite sides of it. This movement generates the centrifugal force which resists the force.
- Acceleration which is at an angle to the velocity of a pure charge acts in such a way that we can think of it as split into two components, one parallel to the velocity and one perpendicular to it. The first causes the field of motion to change size and the latter causes it to rotate.
- The motion of the magnetic field of motion generates a second order field of motion which is an electric field perpendicular to the line of motion along radii in the opposite direction to the electric field of the charge. This electric field exerts an inward force on the surface of the charge causing the charge to decrease in volume. Associated with this decrease in volume of the charge is an increase in volume of the electric energy density field producing the observed increase in inertial mass of particles travelling at near light speeds.
- Very rapid acceleration in the form of a large change of direction of a high velocity charge will shed the outer part of its magnetic field of motion because magnetic flux cannot move into or out of the charge faster than the speed of light.
Light and electromagnetic waves
- All electromagnetic phenomena are governed by the two field interaction equations
- A photon is a bundle of interacting electric and magnetic energy which travels through space without significant loss of energy. Given this restraint, solution of the field interaction equations is obvious and immediate.
Subject to the condition that the magnetic energy density flux forms closed loops.
- This solution fits two kinds of phenomena, the first is the generation of radio waves as electric current moves in an aerial causing magnetic fields to be generated around the aerial in alternating directions. The loops of flux which form around the aerial moving outward from it ever increasing in size. The second is the formation of tight little bundles of energy moving in a straight line and held together by the desire of the magnetic flux to contract in length.
- A photon starts life as a single magnetic field which has been shed by a violent change in direction of a charge. The field tries to contract and in so doing generates its own electric field. The sideways movement of the flux as its loops try to contract must be perpendicular to this electric field and the result is that the magnetic field accelerates with the electric field it generates until the photon has equal amounts of energy in its electric and magnetic fields and is moving at the speed of light.
- The electric and magnetic fields of a photon are moving at the speed of light. It is wrong to think of the electric and magnetic fields at a point varying with time. (They may appear to vary with time as we see them pass by, but the Maxwellian understanding of electromagnetic radiation is about as correct as observing traffic passing on a motorway and observing that the air periodically changes from gas to car and back again.)
- Space which is pervaded by the polarisation fields of electric charges would however like to behave as a media through which waves can travel. The result is that the energy in the photon becomes dispersed into to a number of regions forming a wave train which appears wavelike to a stationary observer, but is more like a train of trucks all moving together. We do not yet understand the mechanisms, but we can see the effect in that wave trains are produced where the apparent frequency is proportional to the energy in the photon. It would appear from the results of interferometry that these wave trains are all of the same length regardless of the frequency. In our train analogy, each truck carries the same weight; with a larger number of shorter truck, the same length train can carry more.
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© Copyright Bruce Harvey 1997.