The St. Petersburg Posters

This poster display recieved much attention on the first day (July 3rd 2000) of Congress 2000 at St. Petersburg University, but dissapeared overnight. Also included is some of the text from the presentation.

Theoretical Physics is like a jig saw puzzel. In 1905, only half the pieces were present and to make matters worse, the lights were off and some of the pieces were the wrong way up.

Now the lights are on and we have most of the pieces.

We have to agonise over the basic concepts and ask ourselves stupid questions.

When I collected the tickets, I the departure and arival times were all neatly printed out to make things idiot proof for the traveller. I quickly subtracted the times and for a fraction of a second wondered why it took a lot longer to fly there. But it seemed a good question, so I asked the travel agent. She just looked at me and then smiled the way we often smile at people in wheel chairs. Later I imagined that god thought this a very good question and put it to one of her experts.

Physics in Flux

When respectable scientists

start talking about un-dead cats, alternative universes

and quantum waves that go backwards in time;

something is wrong.

Classical physics got its equations right

but its concepts wrong.

Do the electric fields of individual elementary charged particles combine?

or do they coexist in space?

What is an electron?

Old New
A small hard ball with mass and charge Nothing but energy in the form of a polarisation field

If we abandon the old and accept the new

The prize is a unified theory of

Action at a Distance

Local Absolute Motion




The effect of gravitational potential on clocks

Lorentz contraction and slowing of clocks

Ahead is the possibility of a new understanding of subatomic and quantum physics

Local Absolute Motion

Magnetic fields form around wires carrying electric currents according to


This is prima facie proof that the electric fields have separate existence

The myriad of individual electric fields coexisting in space

forms a background

against which the the motion of an individual electric field

generates magnetic intensity

The velocity of the background is


depending on whether electric field strength of electric potential is the deciding factor

The equation of Biot-Savart becomes



Motion of electric fields Against this background

generates magnetic fields

Motion of magnetic fields generates electric fields

This feedback process causes photons and radio waves

to move at a constant speed through the background

Action at a Distance

(Electric forces)

Electrons and quarks are not small objects

They are electric polarisations of space reaching out towards infinity

The surface is just displacement charge

The displacement charge

which forms the positive surfaces of the up quarks

sits within the electric polarisation field

which is the extended presence of the electron

This is a local action which exerts a force


The force on the proton is the sum of all of the forces

exerted on its quark by all of the other charges in the universe

Action at a Distance

(Magnetic forces)

The energy density of a magnetic field is


The energy content of a magnetic field consists of the sum of the individual contributions of the moving charges which generate it.

Magnetic energy is personal to individual charges

and constrained to move parallel to its electric flux

The force on the surface element of a charge

is due to changes in the energy content of the magnetic field

in the Faraday tube extending outwards from it

Magnetic flux is energy and movement is a flow of energy

Associated with the flow of energy is a flux density

At the surface, magnetic flux emerges from

or is adsorbed into the surface

Its velocity is determined by energy flow and energy density

Using Faraday's law gives the force on the surface element

The surface element acts as an engine

turning mechanical energy into magnetic energy

and magnetic energy into mechanical energy


is the magnetic energy within the Faraday tube

is the force exerted upon or by the surface element

is the velocity of the charge

is the work done by or to the charge


(classical limit)

The magnet field in the vicinity of a moving charge

contains its kinetic energy

Magnetic energy may only move within the Faraday tubes

of the electric field

Acceleration changes the magnetic field within the tubule

This results in a movement of magnetic energy/flux

into or out of the surface element

The force on the surface element may be found by either

calculating the velocity of the flux and using Faraday's Law


Taking as the power associated with the energy change

The inertial force is



The Lorentz Contraction

This classical derivation predicts a real contraction caused by motion against the background

Lorentz failed to realise that his derivation proved

that the equipotential surfaces of would be contracted

The true mapping of a point in the uncontradicted field

onto itself in the contracted field is

The energy content of the electric field


remains constant


(at near light speed)

Inertial mass is a mathematical artefact

calculated as

The effect of the contraction within the moving system

is to increase inertial mass by a factor

The inertial force is generated as part of an energy transfer process


In calculating we divide by

Against Newtonian time, appears larger by a factor of

when measured in the moving system

Therefore, we must divide by to get the force

exerted by the stationary system on the charge

This is mimicked by the use of contracted co-ordinates with

the magnetic field strength increased by a factor

and dividing the final answer by to account for the reduced

capacity of the volume element



Time and Clocks

The universe exists in the moment of NOW

It is in a state of flux

The past exists only as memory and record

The future is yet to exist

The universe plays out its events against

universally synchronised Newtonian time

Records of events can be described using R3+time co-ordinates

but time is not a real extended dimension

The effect of the Lorentz contraction is to increase mass

within the moving system by a factor

This slows all time dependent processes by a factor

Within the moving system, clocks run slow

The effects on clock speed and mass is such

as to make each other undebatable

within the moving system

Gravitational potential slows clocks

These effects on clocks are predicted by

the methods of classical physics

Relativity is superfluous


A two dimensional model of gravity

At the point of attachment of A, the rail has a slight gradient caused by the distortion due to B

This gives a component along the rail towards B equivalent to a gravitational force

All electric fields have an internal tension

The rigidity of dielectrics opposes the tension and only a small distortion takes place

What happens with an electric field in the vacuum of space

Space must have some form of rigidity opposing the internal tension of electric fields

We would expect some distortion

But we can only extend the one dimensional model to three

if we have a fourth dimension in which the distortion occurs

When the plates of a charged air filled capacitor are moved apart

The voltage between the plates increase in proportion

Nothing else changes

Electric potential is real and the electric field of a charge

can best be understood as a four dimensional entity

The polarisation of the vacuum is the protrusion into R3

of a four dimensional phenomenon in R3+

Gravity is due to the combined distortion of space

by the internal tensions of individual charges

The effect of gravitational potential on clocks

Gravitational and electric fields are primarily Potential fields

They exert forces because of their gradient

The electric potential at the surface of a charge

is proportional to the energy stored in its electric field

The effect of a gravitational field on a charge

is to drain energy from its electric field

Half of that energy is stored in the distortion of space

The other half does work according to the change in gravitational potential

Electric field strength is reduced in the same proportion

as the energy drain from the electric field


Most clocks use a form of harmonic motion with proportional to

The reduction of increases the period

The clock runs slow by a factor


Lorentz V Einstein

Overtaking trains

Lorentz assumes a background aether

Lorentz's trains suffer real contractions

Einstein denies the existence of the stationary system

Einstein's trains do not suffer real contractions

As Einstein's carriages pass each other, they beat out

universally synchronised Newtonian time

The view from Einstein's train according to popular belief

It is claimed that the track-side and the other train appear contracted

But we need a very special camera to see this view

The strange gravitational Mass of Photons

It has long been though that

were all equal

This is an overstatement of the requirements

In fact

They need only be in the same ratio for electrons, up quarks and down quarks

Active gravitational mass generates gravitational fields

The forces from which we infer the existence of and

are generated within the surface element of the charge

and depend on the direction of its electric field

electrons up quarks and down quarks are spherically symmetric

Photons are not

Their fields are perpendicular to their path

They have equal energy in their electric and magnetic fields

Taking these different symmetries into account

The gravitational force on a photon is perpendicular to its path


Photons climbing from the sun feel no force of gravity

and do no work against gravity

They appear read shifted because of the effect of

gravitational potential on time dependent processes

Gravitational forces

Gravitational forces act along the direction

of electric and magnetic fields

For matter composed of spherical charges

this is of little consequence

But the fields of a photon all lie in planes perpendicular to its direction of motion

The gravitational force on a photon depends on the direction of its path

and is generated within both its electric and magnetic fields

The gravitational force acts perpendicular to its path

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© Copyright Text Bruce Harvey 2000, Pictures Shirley Harvey 2000