# Charges

### Keywords

charge, electric charge, spherical charge, electron, quark, Pure Charge Theory, pure charge, polarisation, electric field, gravity, inertia

## Creating charges from space

Space exists and has structure. It has what we might think of as two layers, one of electrical positiveness and one of negativeness. These layers may be pulled apart polarizing space to form an electric field. A charge may be created from space by polarising space in a spherically symmetric fashion towards a point.

The resulting electric polarization field is fundamentally an "Energy Density Field". As we move nearer to the centre of the polarization, the energy density increases. If the polarization were continued to a point, the energy density field would contain an infinite amount of energy. Since this is impossible, the polarisation field must terminate in a spherical surface of finite size. The termination of the polarization at the surface of the charge produces a raw edge of charge which is either positive or negative depending on the direction of the polarization. The charge is both its electric polarization energy density field and its inner surface of charge.

Once created from space, the charge exists in its own right and its centre has a locus in space. A second charge created from space in the same way will also exist in its own right. Each charge has an energy density field which extends to infinity and the two charges coexist throughout all space. No matter how many charges there are in the universe, they are all infinite in size and coexist throughout all space.

This theory of the nature of electric charge and electric fields is dealt with in more detail in the section entitled Charges and Electric Energy Density Fields.

We describe the electric polarization energy density field of a charge in two ways. The electric energy density vector and the electric field intensity vector . The energy density vector describes the fundamental nature of the field. is just a property of the field. The fundamental equation of physics is. This gives the energy density of the electric field of a charge q at a distance r; from its geometric centre. is the permittivity of free space. We can integrate this equation to give us the total energy in the energy density field. where r is the radius of the charge's inner surface.

Three types of charge are common in nature, the electron, the up quark and the down quark. In the Pure Charge Model, we can represent all three by varying q and r. This requires their charges to be in the ratio 1: 2/3 : -1/3 and their radii to be in the ratio 5508 : 4 : 1. This will give them energies in the ratio of their inertial mass.

Pure charges do not have "mass" as we are taught to think of it at school. They have an energy and an inertia and they are subject to the action of gravity. We might say that a pure charge has "inertial mass" or that it has "gravitational mass", but it is to be understood that these are properties of its energy. They do not have real existence, only the energy exists. This may be a difficult concept to grasp.